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1 Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education, High School Graduates, Projections by State, 1992ö2009 (Boulder, CO: 1993).
2 National Center for Educational Statistics, A Back to School Special Report on the Baby Boom Echo (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1997).
3 Steven D. Gold and Sarah Ritchie, State Spending Patterns in the 1990s (Albany: Center for the Study of the States, 1995), p. iv.
4 Robert H. Atwell, ãFinancial Prospects for Higher Education,ä Policy Perspectives (Philadelphia: Institute for Research on Higher Education, 1992), p. 5B.
5 Presidentâs Advisory Council on Science and Technology, Renewing the Promise: Research Intensive Universities and the Nation (Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President, 1992), p. xii.
6 The roundtable was jointly convened by the California Higher Education Policy Center and the Pew Higher Education Roundtable with support from the Ford Foundation and the James Irvine Foundation. The Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education (WICHE) and the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) also served as co-sponsors. A report on the roundtable was published by the California Center as a supplement to its October 1996 issue of its newsletter, CrossTalk, and by the Pew Higher Education Roundtable in the November 1996 issue of Policy Perspectives.
7 Wingspread Group on Higher Education, An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education (Johnson Foundation, 1993), pp. 1, 13.
8 Technology and Restructuring Roundtable, Leveraged Learning (Palo Alto: Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures, 1995), p. 12.
9 National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 1996 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1996), pp. 353ö355.
10 The College Board, Trends in Student Aid, 1986 to 1996 (Washington, D.C.: 1996).
11 John Immerwahr, with Steve Farkas, The Closing Gateway: Californians Consider Their Higher Education System (San Jose: California Higher Education Policy Center, 1993). A subsequent Public Agenda survey of 29 California opinion leaders furnished an added perspective: John Immerwahr, with Jill Boese, Preserving the Higher Education Legacy: A Conversation with California Leaders (San Jose: California Higher Education Policy Center, 1995).
12 Patrick M. Callan and Joni E. Finney, editors, Public and Private Financing of Higher Education: Shaping Public Policy for the Future (Phoenix: American Council on Education and Oryx Press, 1997).
13 Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, Higher Education: Who Pays? Who Benefits? Who Should Pay? (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973).
14 These questions derive from the following essay, which first reported on the national roundtable discussion: Robert Zemsky and Gregory R. Wegner, ãRumbling,ä in Policy Perspectives 7, no. 1 (Philadelphia: Institute for Research on Higher Education). The essay also appeared in CrossTalk 4, no. 3 (San Jose: California Higher Education Policy Center, 1996), pp. 1aö8a.
15 Frank M. Bowen, Kathy Reeves Bracco, Patrick M. Callan, Joni E. Finney, Richard C. Richardson, Jr., and William Trombley, State Structures for the Governance of Higher Education: A Comparative Study (San Jose: California Higher Education Policy Center, 1997). The California Higher Education Policy Center also published case studies of the seven states and an annotated bibliography. The study will be published in book form by Oryx Press.
16 Daniel Yankelovich, Coming to Public Judgment: Making Democracy Work in a Complex World (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1991), p. 6. Yankelovich defines public judgment as ãthe state of highly developed public opinion that exists once people have engaged an issue, considered it from all sides, understood the choices it leads to, and accepted the full consequences of the choices they make.ä


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