Since the major cost item in instruction is personnel, reducing the time that faculty and others invest and transferring some of these tasks to technology is key.
  • Online Tutorials
    Instructional software allows much of the time faculty spend preparing lectures, introducing content, and reviewing homework to be transferred to the technology.

  • Automated Assessment
    Automated grading of homework exercises and problems, low-stakes quizzes, and exams for subjects that can be assessed through standardized formats increase the level of student feedback and offload these rote activities from faculty.

  • Course Management Systems
    Sophisticated course-management systems enable faculty to monitor student progress and performance, track time on task, and intervene on an individualized basis.

  • Shared Resources
    When the whole course is redesigned, substantial amounts of time that individual faculty members spend developing and revising course materials and preparing for classes can be reduced by eliminating duplication of effort.

  • Staffing Substitutions
    By constructing a support system that comprises various kinds of instructional personnel, institutions can apply the right level of human intervention to particular kinds of student problems. Highly trained (and expensive) faculty members are not needed to support all tasks associated with delivering a course.
In each case, the whole course-rather than a single class-is the target of redesign. Faculty begin by analyzing the amount of time spent on each activity, which often reveals duplication of effort among faculty. By sharing responsibility for course development and delivery, faculty save substantial amounts of time while achieving greater course consistency.


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